Russian military and refugee camps, places of residence 1945-1954 “Second wave” of emigration. Displaced persons.
Catalog of military (DEF) and refugee (DP) after the Second World War. Prepared by Mikhail Blinov 2010-2019 (C)
1.1. Austria, 1945-1955
– Althofen, village, camps DEF 15 KKK
formed in May 1945 from DEF and their families, liquidated after the mass extradition of the NKVD in Judenburg (Althofen)
– Amlach, village, camps of the valley of the river Drava and Lienz
located 2-3 km. from Lienz
Accommodation was carried out in villas (Cossack Junkers College) and in a hotel (GUKV headed by General P.N. Krasnov). They were formed in May 1945. Some hundreds of people, officers, cadets and civilians lived approximately. After the mass extradition of Cossacks, only a few civilian refugees remained in the village
Current state: The hotel and nearby houses have been preserved unchanged.
– Weidmannsdorf in Klagenfurt.
DP Camps in the Klagenfurt area are referred to as the places of residence of individual Russian refugees, former ranks of the Russian Corps for 1949-1950.
The number is not clarified; in 1950, 53 former ranks of the Russian Corps lived
– Viktring PW, DEF, DP
Primary parking after the disarmament of the Russian Corps before being transferred to Klein Sant Veit. Accommodation took place in tents and in separate buildings. It was founded on May 12, 1945, existed until May 18, 1945. Number – 5-6,000 troops + refugees
– Gratz, POW, DEF, DP administration, camps, prisons, places of residence
The place of transit detention of Cossacks in May-June 1945, prisoners of war, the OST, etc.
– Dolsach village, railway station, camps of the valley of the river Drava and Lienz
The railway station closest to Lienz station and village. Here in 1945, the Cossacks were loaded into the railway. wagons. Single refugees of the Cossack lived in the village
– Salzburg,city, area of residence, see Parsh
– Kellerberg, DEF, DP main residence of RC
White Camp”, ranks of the Russian corps and families, the second “Gallipoli”
The initial number on the lists was over 5,000 former ranks of the Russian Corps and their family members. It existed from November 1945 to 1952.
The Russian cemetery has been preserved.
– Klagenfurt DEF, DP city, administration center
The transit point of the Russian Corps. British zone of occupation, DP camp (UNRRA N 332 appears) The number of Russians is unknown, see also – Weidmannsdorf
– Kl. Saint Veit DEF, DP place of RC
Tigring village, DEF camp
The secondary parking of the Russian Corps in 1945 was until the end of October 1945, before being transferred to Kellerberg. Tents, separate houses of nearby villages were used as places of residence. A theater, achurch were built .. The number was from 5 to 8 thousand people, military ranks and refugees. The British command issued a small amount of weapons to guard.
– Lavant, village of the valley of the river Drava and Lienz
Tent camps for refugees of the Cossacks were formed in May 1945 and existed before the mass extradition of Cossacks to Judenburg. The exact number of refugees has not been clarified. They fled to the American zone of occupation and emigrated – a small number.
– Lienz HQ location of the Cossacks
The Cossack and Refugee Residency Center of the Cossacks, including the Military Headquarters (the “Goldener Fish” Hotel, exists today), as well as the solitary residence of Cossacks and refugees in the area in May-June 1945
– Oberdrauburg, DEF and refugee valleys of the river Drava and Lienz,
May-June 1945. Residents of the Caucasus mountains people, many Muslims, some escaped the NKVD and emigrated to America.
– Parsch, DP, Salzburg
Formed on the basis of the former concentration camp of the Second World War “New Palestine”. In 1945 there were about 2000 Russians in the Parsh. Half were “old”, pre-war emigrants, most of them from Yugoslavia, and the other half — the second wave — surged from the German-occupied parts of the Soviet Union: Cossacks, Vlasovites, politically persecuted and simply carried by fate. .
It existed in 1953.
– Peggetz, the valley of the river Drava and Lienz
DEF and refugee, later POW, the main and largest camp of the Cossacks. It existed in 1945 before the mass issuance of Cossacks. After issuance continued to function, abundance and closing time unknown
– Feldkirkhen, village, 15 KKK
camp DEF 15 KKK, formed in May 1945, liquidated after the issuance of Cossacks
– Helbrun (district Salzburg), the Cossack and the old man’s house
camp or area of compact residence of the Cossacks, mentioned in 1953
– Spital, POW, DEF, DP
Camp PW, DEF-Transit, D.P. It was formed on the basis of a prisoner of war camp (including Soviet ones). It was used on May 28, 1945 as a transit camp for the extradition of Cossacks. For 1953 it is referred to as DP camp for Russian refugees
– Judenburg, POW
temporary transit Cossack camp DEF, border of the Soviet / English zone of occupation until July 15, 1945. Place of transfer of the Cossacks by the Allies to the Soviet command on May 28-29, 1945. The workshops of the steel plant were used as places of detention.
1.2. Germany (Deutschland), 1945-1953
– Amberg, Bavaria
Mentioned as a camp in 1955 by Russian emigrant Fedor Kochetov
Mentioned as a camp for admission in February 1946 not issued February 1946 in Plattling with the assignment of the DP Statute
– Bad Aibling, POW, DP
PW (P.W.E.26) on July 1946, 9. arrivals from Burgau 800 people. (Russian)
1946 August 21 – issuance to the councils of 630 people. (“Vlasovites”)
There is an IRO (Children’s Village) refugee camp – Bad Aibling
– refugees from Ukraine, Poland and Belarus
– Burgau, PW (station between Augsburg and Ulm)
Camp PW (P.W.E. 318), US Guard
The location is 0.5-1 km away. from railway Burgau station. Wooden barracks, towers and 2 rows of wire and on towers are American-hourly.
1946 May, 9 – 800 people are brought from Plattling, a group of prisoners of war, supposedly for dissolution.
1946 June 8 – transfer to Bad Aibling 786 people.
1946 July 9 – transfer to Bad Aibling
Suicides and Shoots
– Wilhelmstal – (see Mönchegof)
– Ganacker, POW of ROA
near Landau (Landau an der Isar), the rank of ROA (detachment of General Meandrov and others)
camp PW (P.W.115), American zone of occupation
composition: ranks of the ROA, a group of Cossacks from Landshut (Consolidated Regiment) and civilians (200-300 people)
Military, “a camp in an open field, they entangled themselves with wire, then they gave out tents, women and children were sent to the city of Landau”
There were people with disabilities, the elderly and civilians, whom, at the request of the Americans, could be released the people, but General Meandrov did not..
1945, May 28 – arrived ex. ROA – 5730 people.
1945 (?) – arrived parts of the consolidated regiment (General Turkul) from Landshut – 680
Total – 6.410 people. + (150-250 women with units, 1945, May 29 transferred to Landau)
Departed from the Ganaker from 05/28/1945 to 8/18/1945
2,136 people were sent for field work, 418 people voluntarily left to the USSR, 1218 people left the camp (escaped), 8 people were officially released.
420 people were transported to Regensburg on 18.8.1945 (officers), 2210 people were transported to Sonendorf (soldiers).
The liquidation of the Ganaker camp – 18.Aug.1945
Officers were transported to Regensburg, soldiers and 30 of. – to Sonendorf
– Dachau POW, 2 Division ROA, Cossacks
1946, beginning of January. Arrival from Bad Aibling of the working group 164 people.
In total there were Russians about 300 people.
1946, Jan 19, “bloody baptism” – Issuing to USSR- NKVD about 300 people.
The deaths of -14 people., In heavy. 21 people, about 100 people injured. (in a company of 200 people)
5-6 old emigrants were released, but placed in the Plattling.
There are references to DP camps (UNNRA & IRO DP) but the number of Russians is unknown
– Sonnendorf, near Passau, POW
Brought from Ganaker on 8/18/1945 – 2210 people. (soldiers, B. ROA)
Several teams were joined, including 140 people sent to field work in Ganaker – former members of the ROA
280 people left the camp (ran away, former ROA), voluntarily left to the USSR – 320 people, transferred to the Plattling on 15 and 16 .9.1945 – 1750 people.
– Ingolstadt, near Munich (USA zone)
In 1950, a camp from Regensburg was transferred to it (including a combined gymnasium).
It is also mentioned in 1949 … It was disbanded in 1951.
– Innstadt Russian camp (? on the map outskirts of Passau)
From here, students were brought to Passau,
composition and dates of the unknown
– Kempten – ranks of ROA, DP
Shortly after the end of the war, the di-pi camp was established in the Bavarian city of Kempten. There were people who did not want to repatriate under the Soviet totalitarian regime. Soon there arose a church and a Russian school, at the beginning there were only two classes: the youngest and oldest – from 12 years old and to adults who had not learned due to the war. On August 12, 1945, when the American military police burst into the church during a service and, forcibly pulling out people holding tightly to each other, dragged them into the yard .. Those who had Soviet citizenship for 1939 were selected: they were subject to the Yalta agreements repatriation. This did not apply to the “old” emigrants and the Baltic. Some who received fabricated documents with the help of the “old” managed to avoid repatriation, others, warned in advance by one American soldier, went to the forest in advance. Of the 410 people on the list of Soviet citizens, 80 were taken away. A month later, the camp was transferred to Füssen .. ”
– “Colorado” – see Henigsen Village
– Landsberg, (U.S. zone) DP
It was used as a DP refugee camp from refugees of the USSR and the Baltic states. There were about 6,000 people, 5,000 of whom were Jews. After December 1946, it contained 1,600 Nazi criminals awaiting a decision in the American zone of occupation
– Landshut,near Munich, Cossacks
On 08/18/1945 – there are 6 generals (ROA) in the camp – Meandrov, Sevastyanov, Aissberg and three old emigrants – B., A., B., from Ganaker
In 1948, the Cossack village at the camp is mentioned
– Legau, near Munich (boy-scouts)
– Ludwigsfeld (near Munich) referred to as Kalmyks
– Liam, near Munich,
Mentioned as a DP camp for Russians and Lithuanians
– Maierhof– see Passau
– Marburg, (POW or filtration)
Separate officers from the Regensburg PW camp on Sept. 1946, out of 6 officers, 2 were issued to the NKVD-USSR, 4 were released. Mixed issuing commission is constantly working
By October, the Bolsheviks were given 214 prisoners of war “Folkdeutsche” who had fallen to the United States and transported back to Europe, of which 8-10 had escaped from Ganaker and enlisted in the “Volksdeutsche”
– Memmingen, near Munich
Mentioned in 1948 as a camp, the residence of the Cossack Ataman Gen. Naumenko
– Mönchehof, near Kassel Russian camp DP
There was a gymnasium, a cemetery. The exact number of residents has not been clarified
Wilhelmstal, 2 km. from Menhegof
Gymnasium named after MV Lomonosov – a three-story brick building of an old hotel in Wilhelmstal near the hospital, about two kilometers from Menhehof
– Mittenwald, camp
the number and timing are not clarified
– Munich, the city, the UNRRA center and the Russian area
– Niedersachswerfen, (Thuringia)
American zone of occupation, transferred to the Soviet
elementary school (founded back in Berg)
– Passau DP camp, area of residence
“The ancient Bavarian picturesque city at the confluence of three rivers – the Danube, Inna and Ilets
Mayerhof Suburb – Occupation authorities united 2 groups of refugees, settled in German barracks
Basis – from Czechoslovakia »Gymnasium of St. Cyril and Methodius
Camp DP. Moved to Regensburg in 1949.
– Plattling PW, near Regensburg
Camp DEFS 431 (? Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEF))
American Guard, between train and Danube from scratch
Built for 10,000 people, had 10 blocks and was half empty.
They began to fill the Russian prisoners of war ROA, Cossacks and individual groups who served in the Wehrmacht and SS
The number of located (b.chin ROA and civilians) on February 24. 1946 – 3300 people
Movement of people to this date: Arrived from Sonendorf – 1750 people, arrived from Regensburg -745 people, returned from sent to field work – 340 people, joined the “civic group” of Major Ivanov – 120 people, joined the “Yugoslav group” from Landshut – 260 people, it took until Jan 1. 1946 – about 100 people, several separate groups arrived, including 200 from Dachau.
On 1946, Feb. 6, there are old emigrants from France
February 1946 from 11 to 16 – all Germans were taken away
After the commission toughening the stay, the internal phone numbers were removed., Replacement of protection
1946 February 24 – the first issue of prisoners, a train of 1,500 people.
May 9- a group of 800 people. sent to Burgau (where later it will be issued
May 10, the Volksdeutsche group was released (half of Russian origin
— 13 – the second issue of prisoners, 210 people.
— 14 – about 600 people remained in the camp.
— 15 – export of 400 people. through Passau, 2-3 km. from the Soviet-Czech border in the woods everyone is released with documents. Most leave for the station in Passau ..
colonel Artil. Kuzmin (+1945, dec. 3) – from a broken heart
Melnikov, a talented artist (+1946, Jan. 26) – hanged himself
Soldier Salamanov Peter (+1946, Feb. 7) – from blood poisoning
– Plauen, Sachsen, not far from Dresden
– Pfaffenhofen DP Camp (US zone), Russian scouts, Kalmyks ..
Camp Regensburg P.W.E.22 (for prisoners of war SS with strict regime and double wire)
The movement of people (former officers of the ROA) in the Regensburg camp
420 people were brought from Ganaker on 18.8.1945 (officers), 460 people were joined by other groups (Maltsev pol.), 3 people fled, 132 people left voluntarily to the USSR, and transferred to Plattling camp on 11.24.1945 – 745 people, 6 people graduated. disabled people (recorded as employees of the Wehrmacht)
Captured SS and Hungarians are here
Old immigrants – 60-70 people.
60 pax Russian Corps left for their own in Landshut
— Ganghoferzidlung near Regensburg
DP. The camp from Passau was poured into it in 1949. In 1949 transferred to Ingolstadt
– Rothwesten near Kassel (Aerodrome area) DP
The camp is mentioned in the memoirs of R.Polchaninov
There is a primary school
– Fieldmohing* (Munich) Cossacks
Mentioned in 1953 as a Cossack camp, assisted by the Board of the Overseas Cossack Village in Philadelphia USA
– Fischbeck (Elbe),Germany (near Magdeburg – see Hamburg)
– Freimann (suburb of Munich)
Russian refugees (a total of 14,000 different people in the camp)
Location – five-story barracks SS, gymnasium – rooms in the basement and in the bath
After 2 years in 1946, the refugees were transferred to Schleissheim.
– Furstenwalde Camp, Elementary School
– Füssen DP mixd camp UNRRA
around September 1945, refugees from Kempten arrived
1946, May 12, Russian-Ukrainian-Latvian-Lithuanian camp DP, a total of 4300 people.
1946, May 12, The beginning of the general runaway.
1946 autumn – the camp was transferred to Schleissheim camp
– Henigsen Village (Hannover, near Munster), “Colorado”
“Russian refugee camp” Colorado “(the name was given by the British) (DP)
Discovered by British occupation authorities
Location -German military barracks
In total – about 1000 Russians
Orthodox Parish, Choir, School, Colorado Grammar School, ORUR (Scouts)
– Zierenberg (? near Kassel)
Camp, Elementary School
– Schleissheim, (Schleißheim ) near Munich
Camp DP 1946-1952, Russians and Ukrainians
Schleissheim was an abandoned German camp located on a deforestation in Germany, near Munich.
After World War II, many Russian refugees who remained in Germany concentrated in Schleissheim. The result was a small Russian town of about three thousand inhabitants.
– Aversa, near Naples, camp
Mentioned as a participant in the operation “Kilhow”
– Ancona, PW (living outside the USSR, the division “Prince Eugene”, 3 reserve Cossack regiment.)
Description of the camp.
In May 1945 – a large campground for about 50,000 people.
mentioned the German part of the camp, the old emigrants (in May 1945, then some were taken away) Living outside the USSR, the division “Prince Eugene” (from the Germans in the Balkans).
Small groups of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats
– 3 app. Cossack regiment (Cossack Stan, Kuban), about 400 people. (arrived from Forlì on May 14-15 +2 days = May 16-17, 1945). At the end of May, most of it was transferred to Taranto.
– colonel Semenov and part of the ranks of the regiment “Varyag” (arrived from Forlì on May 16-17, 1945, at the end of May they were transferred to Taranto
– Bagnoli (UNRRA) near Naples, camp (the main place of concentration of ex.Soviet citizens)
Initially, the complex was built as a youth camp for the Bank of Naples Foundation Bank from 1946 to 1951. existed as an official DP camp. Until January 1953, the camp was occupied by the Allied forces of southern Europe, and since 1954 the complex began to be rebuilt and reorganized.
For 1946 June 22 = about 400 Russians and up to 700 Croats
1946, August 14, the entire camp (Russian group) was taken to the Rimini prisoner of war.
– Bari, (? Transit), Cossacks
In1947. Mentioned as a transit camp of the Cossacks. From here – in Ricion (ibid.)
– Barletta, near Trani (southern Italy), Polish civilian camp,
Separate Russians, June 22, 1946 transported to Bagnoli
– Bologna, railway station, place of forced repatriation and tragedy
1947, May 10 – forced repatriation of the former Soviet
After the fraud of groups from Pisa and Rimini was revealed, the Russians, the “unarmed mass of suicide bombers” rushed to the English guard and entered the last battle … More than 100 people were killed
– Via Tasso, the hostel
(? Maybe Via Tasso is between Rimini and Ricioni)
– Villa Alba, camp (formerly insane asylum)
the number of Russians is not determined
– Naples Район refugee resettlement
– Pagani , (near Salerno)
Russian place of residence
June 1951, place of residence of B. Shiryaev
– Pise (American)
In May 1947, about 100 people in the area of Bologna station were attached to the train with
issued by Rimini. Those who were issued raised an uprising in the area of Bologna station under the leadership of Ivanov’s senior camp group (pseudonym) Pavel Petrovich. About 100 people died.
Camp Pisa – a member of the operation “Kilhou”
– Reggio Emilia
= 1947 there were Cossacks, (? Perhaps a civilian camp near Ricione Rimini,)
– Parrocchia della Trasfigurazione di N.S.G.C, Rome
—–House at the church with Russian refugees
Mentioned in 1947 as a civil camp in the region of Rome, there are Cossacks
— The village of Riccione, adjacent to Rimini) (English camp) near Rome.
—— Prisoner of war camp and civilian camp.
(except for Russians, there are German prisoners of war) After August 14, 1946, all former sub-Soviet (women, old people and adolescents) from the Bagnoli camp and were put behind barbed wire under guard in canvas military tents
From Aug 15, 1946 refugees were transferred to the position of prisoners of war under British guard
Escape a number of individuals.
1947, May 7, on the night of 8, 185 former Soviet people (from camps 6, 7) were transferred to the special unit, the English form was selected and the German issued.
1947, May 8. Issue. Railway loading stations and shipping to the USSR. First suicides. Women and children were separated from husbands, sons and brothers.
Among the issued – many Don, Kuban and Terek Cossacks Through the railway station Bologna
After two years in the camp, 7,100 Ukrainians (and enrolled as “Ukrainians,” most former prisoners of war, moved to Britain
– San-Sabba, area of Trieste.
In 1947 it is referred to as a camp for former cadets
– Taranto city, (8 km. From it), camp of the Varyag regiment in the south
Former Soviet, in “Varyag” – more than 200 old emigrants
1945, May. A ship with repatriates sent to the USSR
1945, May 24-25. Soviet camp for 12 0000 people, exclusively Russian (10 versts from the station), above the camp – the Soviet flag, commandant – Sov. Major Goncharenko. Lack of security, free access, good food.
1945, May, 24-25, arrival from the Ancona camp of the ranks of the Varyag regiment led by the regiment Semenov and 3 reserve Cossack regiment. We stayed for about a month. On June 15-17, loading on trains of 1000-1300 people began daily for shipment to the USSR through Austria. On June 23, the Cossacks and part of the ranks of the Varyag regiment left.
– Trieste (modern, italian) see camp San Sabba
– Forli PЩW (ranks of the regiment “Varyag” = 1947 May)
Forli, Former Italian Air Force Academy,
1945, May 14 or 15, “for two days there were 1150 people 3 app. Kazakh regiment, Colonel Semenov and about 2,000 people here. regiment “Varangian”
a few days later sent to Ancona “
– Cinecittà (district of Rome, DP center in Italy)
place of residence of individual Russians (according to B. Shiryaev)
Located in the Rome region, the camp has become the center of all DPs in Italy. The camp was opened by the Allied Commission in 1945. There were Jews and non-Jews here (in 1945, 1800 of all inhabitants)
1.4. Different countries, camps (POW, DEF and DP) Hungary, France, USA, Liechtenstein and others
– USA: Camps:
– Fort Dix – New Jersey
– Rupert – Iowa
– Winchester – Virginia
– Doleville – Alabama
2. Latin America
Many refugees later relocated to the USA
2.1. – Argentina
2.2.- Brazil, DP camps
2.3. – Venezuela, DP IRO camps
Centro de Recepción de Inmigrantes «El Trompillo» in the state of Carabobo
Wanting to attract qualified people who have the skill and tradition of hard, organized work, President Rómulo Betancourt signed an agreement with the IRO (International Refugee Organization, Organización Internacional de Refugiados). The first, contingent “A”, 850 refugees of various nationalities, arrived from Bremerhafen on the ship “General SD Sturgis”, in the city of Puerto Cabello, September 2, 1947. From there they were sent to the Centro de Recepción de Inmigrantes “El Trompillo”, in the state of Carabobo, for 2,500 people, not far from the village of Gϋigϋe
There were only about 5,000 Russians. After 3-4 weeks in the camp, they gave $ 10 per person (from UNRRA) and was released.
It existed until 1952-53
3. Far East 1945-1953
3.1. Tubabao island (Philippines), DP camps
Formed in 1949 from Russian refugees from Shanghai, only about 5,000 people. Most arrived by sea, some by air. Most received permission to enter the United States and Australia in 1950-1952. Eliminated after 1952
The catalog is replenished. The author (Mikhail Blinov) will be glad to any comments, corrections and additions.
See also: sources and thanks for help
Every year, usually May 28 – June 1, we visit the places of the Cossack tragedy in Lienz to commemorate all the victims of the war (World War I and World War II), Cossacks, prisoners of war. Mikhail Blinov conducts excursions to all the memorable places indicated above. Those wishing to join the visit – write to us.