Manchuria

The Russian Empire for a long time had a special position in Manchuria, known for the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway and Russian cities in its exclusion zone. After the revolution in Russia, the status and ownership of the railway and cities in its exclusion zone was constantly changing and was the subject of controversy between the White armies of Admiral Kolchak, the USSR, Japan and the Chinese coalition of Tupans led by Zhang-Zo Lin. At the height of the Chinese civil war in 1931, Japan occupied Manchuria and restored (according to the Soviet version) the “puppet state of Manzhou-go.” Most Russians living at this time in this territory supported the restoration of the monarchy. An example is the appeal of the Russian emigrant Vasily Vladimirov, which we give almost completely:

“The idea of ​​the revival of Manchu independent statehood.
In order to understand the greatness of the events taking place in it, it is necessary to briefly familiarize yourself with the history of Manchuria and its ancient aborigines – the Manchu and the Mongol, whose representative, the last Emperor of the Manchu dynasty, Dai Qing, Xuan Tong (PU-I), was proclaimed on March 9, 1932 d. The Supreme Ruler of the revived state of Manchuria.

This story is little known to the broad masses of Russian readers, but it should be studied by all Russians as neighbors of the Manchu and Mongol in Asia.
First of all, we must remember that Manchuria from the most ancient times was a territory on which independent states invariably visited. Here, back in the 3rd century, according to P. X., there was the Toba state, which conquered all of East Asia, including China, reigning under the name of the Wei dynasty. In the VII century. according to P. X., the state of Bo-hai, has reached a great culture, whose monuments are now located by archaeologists. In the X century, this state was replaced by the Khitan kingdom, which also conquered China, where they are known by the name of the Liao Dynasty. Then the Jurchen people rule in Manchuria, who founded the Jin dynasty, which also had China in their possessions, and finally, after the two-century rule of the Mongols, an independent state also emerged in Manchuria at the beginning of the 17th century, under the auspices of the Dai Qing House.
This dynasty brought especially much glory to Manchuria. In a very short time, she conquered all the states and lands of almost all of Asia, including China, Korea, Mongolia, Tibet, etc., creating a powerful kingdom. All this was done by several hundred thousand Manchu and Mongol warriors, rushing to conquer, led by their talented Emperor commanders.
Thus, for 267 years, the Dai – Qing Manchu dynasty owns the United (federal) Empire, which, incidentally, was never “Chinese”, because the Chinese Empire conquered by the Dai Qing from the Ming Dynasty was only part of the Dai Qing Empire. The latter included Manchuria, as the main and completely independent state from other parts of the federation, Mongolia, Tibet, China and East Turkestan, which were imperial land.
But the Chinese, as more cunning and having a centuries-old culture for two and a half centuries, sharpened the militaristic power of the Manchus and almost assimilated them, in 1912 treacherously overthrew the four-year-old Emperor Xuan-Tong (PU-I) and established the republic, assuring that all 5 tribes would be have equal rights in that.
However, with their characteristic treachery, they violated these guarantees and having become the rulers themselves, over the course of twenty years led the country to complete impoverishment.
These events are well known and we will not dwell on them. Now we note that the population of Manchuria could not remain indifferent to the perpetrated crimes of the Hunghuz authorities that existed here, and secretly hatched the idea of ​​a revival of their independence.
The nightmare that was called the Chinese power over Manchuria, turned into a colony for migrants from China, lasted twenty years, and only on September 18, 1931 did the well-known events begin that led to the revival of Manchu independence.
The Manchu population took advantage of the conflict that broke out between Japan and Zhang, Xue-liang, who systematically violated treaties with this power and began to actively prepare for the restoration of state independence.
Finally, on March 9, this year, it was declared at the head of the new, and at the same time the old sovereign of Manchu, the last Emperor of the Manchu dynasty – Xuan Tong – (Pu-I,) took over the rank of Supreme Ruler. Incidentally, upon the establishment of this state, it was announced that all six nations that make up the indigenous population of Manchuria, namely the Manchus, Mongols, Chinese, Russians, Japanese, and Koreans, will enjoy equal rights in it. In relation to other foreigners, Manchu-go declared the opportunity to work for all of them freely, based on the principles of “open doors and equal opportunities”.
Now this state, with the evil hissing from various people inspired by the Chinese, exists safely and gradually strengthens the rule of law, destroying the banditry that was developed here by the same not reconciled Zhang-Xue-Liang and other Chinese usurpers.
Nevertheless, in Manchuria, a revived state is a fait accompli, the population began to live in conditions of legality and a bright future awaits it.
What can we deduce from this example?
– And the fact that the idea, if it is really professed by its carriers, will always overcome the actual situation, no matter what measures the retentionists resort to.

We, Russian emigrants, who also fell to the struggle to translate our ideas into reality, now wholeheartedly and friendlyly welcome the revived independent Manchuria, which has so happily ended its struggle and developed as its foundation for its future, which laid such a fair principle of equal rights for six indigenous peoples . where we, Russians, will have a well-deserved place, as we have made our contribution to raising Northern Manchuria to cultural life.
Manchuria, therefore, will always remain for us a true friend, friend and neighbor in the future great unity of all the tribes and peoples living in Asia.
Hello to the revived Manchuria!
Greetings to the Supreme Leader of her – Emperor Xuan – Tong! “