Shanghai, Chinese Junks

Russian Shanghai, photo 30s

Russian Shanghai, history, photos, documents

Russian Shanghai, history, photos, documents.

Shanghai is never a calming city. Constant strikes, demonstrations, political and workers, student and just hooligan, change only in the size of their intensity, but they live constantly in this city of contradictions.
The exact time of the founding of Shanghai is difficult to establish, but, in any case, this was before the birth of Christ.
In the early days of its existence, Shanghai developed very slowly, since over the centuries, all trade in lower Yang-Tse-Jiang was concentrated at the confluence of the Liu Hue River, 25 miles upstream from the town of Wuzung, but then this the river turned into a half-clogged tributary, and from that time, shipping passed to the Wampu River, making Shanghai the main shopping center of the entire area.
Since then, Shanghai has retained its importance as a prominent trading point, which undoubtedly was the result of its proximity to the sea and the great movement of Chinese ships through it.
Developing its trade, Shanghai began to grow rich rapidly. This circumstance, however, had its negative side for him, since the city began to attract the attention of sea pirates, who at times attacked it, and the inhabitants of the city were forced to repel these attacks with weapons in their hands. Subsequently, however, these attacks became so frequent and intensified that the residents of Shanghai were no longer able to independently cope with the defense of the city and asked the Emperor to allow them to build a wall around the city. This wall was built in the second half of the 16th century and existed until the twenties of the present century, when it was demolished and a boulevard was laid in its place, along which one of the tram lines now goes. So the ancient monument was sacrificed to progress and gave way to new requirements, an emerging young Chinese culture, developing under the influence of the West.
For the first time, foreign ships appeared in Shanghai in the 13th century and aroused great interest among the Chinese. Foreigners who received the nickname of “overseas immigrants” brought to China a wide variety of goods, which, however, were not appreciated sufficiently and were recognized by the Chinese as unsuitable for their everyday life. It is curious to note that such an opinion was created not because the goods actually brought in were unsuitable, but mainly because the Chinese disdained them, considering themselves to be people of a higher race, subjects to the “Middle Kingdom”, that is, one that would somehow mediate between heaven and earth and, therefore, stands in all respects immeasurably higher than other states. Foreigners, in the eyes of the Chinese, were utter barbarians, having relations with which was humiliating and unacceptable, and this created difficulties from the very first steps on the path of the peaceful development of trade relations with them. To characterize the attitude of the Chinese towards the people of the white race, it is interesting to note that they were given the nickname “foreign devils”, a term that, by the way, is still not completely out of use. It is clear that with such relations between the local population, the first steps of the European pioneer merchants were very difficult, this also explains why subsequently China, in turn, was subjected to great humiliation by foreigners. At first, trade relations with China were possible only through Canton, however, enterprising merchants of that time made a proper assessment of all the benefits that trade through Shanghai could give them, and already in 1756, one of the members of the East India Company proposed to arrange in Shanghai a warehouse.
However, it was only in 1832 that this idea was realized to some extent when a member of this company Lindsay arrived in Shanghai, where he was received extremely unfriendly and was even fired upon (albeit by single charges) from the Wuzung forts. Nevertheless, Lindsay visited the city, obtained an audience with the Governor, and although he did not succeed in obtaining permission to begin trading operations here. He gathered a lot of valuable information about this city and adequately appreciated its future significance for trade. Lindsay made a detailed report about his trip, and this report, among other things, indicated that more than 400 junks came and went to Shanghai in a day. Unfortunately, although the directors of the East India Company were interested in this report, they did not find it necessary to do anything, and Shanghai continued to be closed to foreigners. In 1839, a war broke out between China and England, ending with the capture of Hong Kong (in 1841), and then Amoy and Ningpo.
At the end of military operations in the south, a British squadron appeared at the forts of Wuzung, and on July 13, 1842, the British landed four thousand troops near it, which, with the support of the squadron, quickly ended the forts and on July 19, breaking a small resistance, occupied Shanghai.
After that, the squadron blocked the Imperial Canal and went to Nanjing, where the famous Nanjing treaty was signed, according to which the ports of Swatao, Amoy, Fuchao, Ningpo and Shanghai were declared open for foreign trade, and Hong Kong became fully owned by England.
Some time after the signing of the Nanjing Treaty, the British government sent to Shanghai Sir Harry Pottinger with the order to choose, together with the appointed English Consul, Captain Balfour, a place for the formation of a new English settlement.
Their choice fell on a piece of land lying between the Suzhou canal and the current Avenue of Edward VII. This place was by no means called particularly convenient for the settlement, since it was an almost continuous swamp in which the spread of malaria diseases – mosquitoes abundantly multiplied, and the climatic conditions were difficult for foreigners due to the sweltering heat and dampness in summer time.
For dozens of miles, a marshy, treeless plain crossed by countless channels stretched around, with grave hills scattered here and there.
It should be noted that these canals were of great importance in the history of the development of the city, since due to the fact that the influence of the tides was felt fifty miles upstream of Yang Tse Jiang, these canals were filled with fresh water from this river and were navigable. A huge trade movement took place along them, the final destination of which was Shanghai.
These same channels allowed residents two, and sometimes three times a year, to take magnificent crops. Before embarking on the construction, the British carried out significant work to drain the terrain and in places even raised its level. Only by 1849, the British began to settle on the site chosen for them. This year, there were already 25 foreign firms in Shanghai, and the number of Europeans living in it reached one hundred.
In 1849, the Chinese government ceded to France a piece of land between the walls of a Chinese city and the English Settlement.
At the end of the fifties, the American government also received a concession located in the riverine part of Honkyu, along the Suzhous Canal and the Wampu River, where the main marinas and docks of Shanghai were subsequently built.
In 1863, the American Settlement merged with the English and a kind of autonomous republic was created, called the “INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT”.
The French refused to merge and retained their Concession, with special control.
Since the founding of Settlement, Shanghai began to develop rapidly both commercially and culturally, and little by little has become one of the most important cities in China.
However, before it was possible to calmly enjoy the fruits of their labors, foreigners had to endure many troubling and difficult minutes, for the history of Shanghai since the formation of Settlement in it was marked by bloody clashes, both between the Chinese and the Europeans with the natives.
The most prominent of these events were the triad uprising and the fight against taiping.
In September 1852, the native part of the city of Shanghai was taken by the rebellious triads – the followers of one of the countless Chinese societies.
The imperial Chinese government sent troops to crush this rebellion, however, the triads managed to withstand the siege of the city, sitting behind the city wall for seventeen months.
During this period of time, foreigners were most worried about the presence of the besieging twenty thousand poorly disciplined Chinese government troops, which at first treated the foreigners correctly, and then robberies, robberies and, ultimately, open attacks on foreign residents of the city began.
This forced the British ambassador in April 1854 to demand from the Chinese government the removal of the besieging forces from close proximity to Settlement, and this requirement was ultimatum and, if it was not fulfilled, the British threatened to use military force and destroy the camp of the besiegers.
In response, the Chinese commander of government troops, the general replied that there were too few foreigners to carry out their threat, but he did not consider it possible to withdraw their troops.
Upon receiving this answer, representatives of foreign powers sent an ultimatum to withdraw troops by the 4th of April on the 4th of April from the vicinity of Settlement. The mood of the foreigners was upbeat. At about two in the afternoon of April 4, Chinese soldiers attacked an Englishwoman and her companion on one of the streets of Settlement. Immediately a landing was launched from English and American ships, which, together with a detachment of volunteers from among the inhabitants of Settlement, in total, of three hundred people, moved to the area of ​​the Chinese camp, located on the site of the current Shanghai Flight Club, in the center of Settlement.
This Volunteer Squad laid the foundation of the Shanghai Volunteer Corps, on whose cockade the date “April 4th, 1854” was stamped.
Subsequently, from 1927 until the outbreak of World War II, the Russian Regiment was a regular part of this Corps – the beauty and pride of Shanghai.
The advancing foreign convoy assumed that the Chinese would not accept the battle and would retreat, but it turned out differently and a small handful of foreigners came face to face with the ten thousandth army that opened fire on them.
The position of the foreign detachment was critical, but several successful shots from the amphibious assault made confusion in the ranks of the Chinese government troops, which the foreigners took advantage of and rushed into a swift attack. Seeing what was happening, the besieged revolutionaries, the triads, in turn, launched an attack on government troops, which, after two hours of battle, fled.
This case is called the Battle of the Muddy Flat (marshy plain).
After these events, Shanghai’s normal life was quickly restored and its peaceful course was not disturbed for six years, until the Taiping uprising.
The history of this uprising is as follows: in the early fifties, a Chinese man, by the name of Huang Xiu-tsang, who received some idea of ​​the essence of Christianity, founded a religious society, calling it the “Society of the Most High,” and led the most active sermon against idolatry.
The unsatisfactory domestic situation of China soon changed the character of the movement, mixing political ones with religious affairs against the then-ruling Manchu Dynasty, and little by little this movement turned into a real revolution.
The uprising quickly swept all over Central China. The rebels captured all the big cities and finally captured Nanjing. Huang Xiu-tsan proclaimed himself “Heavenly Emperor” and “Brother of Jesus Christ”, and called the new dynasty Taiping, that is, “heavenly.” Nanjing was declared the capital.
This year (1853) was the culmination of the power of taiping, because after their dizzying successes, the leaders of the movement lost energy and indulged in luxury and excesses, and Huang Xiu-tsang himself turned into a typical military despot.
The imperial Chinese government at that time was very unreasonably involved in the war with England and France, and could not cope with taiping.
Taking advantage of the situation, taiping directed their movement towards the sea – to Shanghai, hoping to capture large warehouses of goods, as well as ships.
In 1860, the revolutionaries, approaching Shanghai, approached the city of Suzhou. Seeing the impending danger, the French admiral Montaban invited the English envoy, who lived in Shanghai, to send a detachment to Suzhou, but the English envoy, referring to the declared neutrality, refused. Suzhou was taken without resistance and taiping massacred about a hundred thousand people. Shanghai was overflowing with refugees, among whom were a lot of very rich people. Following these rich people, dark and criminal elements penetrated the city, and it soon became known that with the approach of taiping to Shanghai, a pogrom would occur in the city. Feeling helpless, the wealthy classes of the people of Shanghai formed a league to defend the city, raised large sums of money and invited one brave American, an adventurer, named Ward, who was entrusted with forming a squad and opposing taipings. Thanks to energy and experience, Ward from the scum of society, deserters and adventurers managed to create a disciplined, united military unit, which won a number of major victories and received the official name of the “Always winning army” from the Chinese government. At that time, the British and French were still neutral, and not only did not support the Word, but demanded his arrest and trial. The Word, however, managed to escape, accepted Chinese citizenship, and reappeared at the head of his squad. It is curious to note that less than ten months after the flight of Vord, the British themselves recognized his detachment as exemplary and wished to use it as a nucleus for the creation of an international military force, without which it would be impossible to calm down in China. The Word was left at the head of the detachment and was given the rank of brigadier general.
In February 1862, the Word, at the head of his detachment and the Chinese government forces, routinely defeated the twenty-thousand-strong Taiping detachment and destroyed the flotilla, with the help of which they intended to make an landing at Shanghai. Following this, he cleared the tippings of the entire right bank of the Wampu River.
However, at the end of April 1862, taiping approached Vuzung, in order to occupy the forts of this fortress and cut Shanghai off the sea, but were defeated and retreated. Soon after, they again appeared on the right bank of the Wampu, called Putung, that is, they came close to Settlement, from which only the river separated them. Shanghai was feverishly preparing for defense, but there were very few troops in the city: one English infantry regiment, one Hindu and French sailors. Shanghai was surrounded on all sides by revolutionaries who cut it off from the rest of China; hunger approached and the city was threatened by the emergence of hunger riots, which it was impossible to cope with in cash by foreign forces. The British Admiral Khor and the French Admiral Prote, who commanded foreign forces in Shanghai, came to the conclusion that it was no longer possible to maintain neutrality and that it was necessary to openly oppose the taiping. They strengthened Vord’s detachment by another 400 men with three guns, but the local victories of Vord did not resolve the situation. By this time, the foreign garrison of Shanghai was increased to 4,000 people with thirty guns, and it was decided to clear the terrain for 30 miles around Shanghai from taiping. This operation was carried out, but Admiral Prote died. Due to the complete indifference of the Chinese government forces during this fight against taiping, the foreign detachment had to allocate groups of troops, like garrisons of the towns being cleared, and the detachment’s forces quickly melted.
Russia made an offer to England and France to send significant reinforcements to the troops and navy to help, but this proposal was rejected.
Meanwhile, taiping again appeared already in close proximity to Shanghai, in the area of ​​the Zikaveysky monastery, and then in the area of ​​the current German school (at the end of Foch Avenue). A foreign detachment was thrown from place to place, clearing the terrain from taiping. In one of these fights, the Word was killed, who is still considered the hero of China. Vord’s death seems to have prompted the Chinese government to show great energy in the company against Taiping, since they soon decided to send a strong expedition to capture Nanking.
The head of all the troops assigned for this operation was the British General Gordon, who completely reorganized the “Always Conquering Army,” which at that time already exceeded “5,000 men,” and after a series of brilliant victories, Nanjing took over in 1864.
So the Taiping uprising, which lasted fourteen years, was eliminated. This rebellion devastated the richest provinces of China, destroyed 600 cities and cost the lives of 20,000,000 people.
Shanghai from 1854 to 1864 was an island in the ocean of destruction, and was saved solely by the power of foreign weapons and the talent and courage of the leaders of its defense – Vord and General Gordon.
Taiping rebellion was the last major test for Shanghai. Subsequently, there were minor clashes between the Chinese and Europeans, but they were all of a local nature.
There were riots in 1897 caused by an increase in the tax on cars (“Wilborrow”); To pacify the strikers, a landing was landed, which, without bloodshed, eliminated the riots.
In 1898, the French municipality decided to demolish the Chinese idol, which was necessary to lay a new street. Riots took place, this time suppressed by force of arms, and fifteen Chinese people were killed and many injured.
During the “boxing uprising” in 1900, order in Shanghai was not disturbed, since there were large garrisons of English, French, German and Japanese troops in the city at that time. These troops remained in Shanghai until 1902.
In December 1905, friction arose in Shanghai over the jurisdiction of an English judge in the local Mixed Court. There were fiery articles in Chinese newspapers and a series of proclamations calling for the protection of the allegedly violated rights of the Chinese. I had to again resort to a landing from warships.
The Chinese revolution of 1911 did not affect Shanghai at all, and only in the summer of 1913, when the war between North and South China began, the inhabitants of Settlement and the French Concession experienced the shells and bullets of Chinese troops fighting in the Chinese city.
man, and after a series of brilliant victories took in 1864 Nanjing.
So the Taiping uprising, which lasted fourteen years, was eliminated. This rebellion devastated the richest provinces of China, destroyed 600 cities and cost the lives of 20,000,000 people.
Shanghai from 1854 to 1864 was an island in the ocean of destruction, and was saved solely by the power of foreign weapons and the talent and courage of the leaders of its defense – Vord and General Gordon.
Taiping rebellion was the last major test for Shanghai. Subsequently, there were minor clashes between the Chinese and Europeans, but they were all of a local nature.
There were riots in 1897 caused by an increase in the tax on cars (“Wilborrow”); To pacify the strikers, a landing was landed, which, without bloodshed, eliminated the riots.
In 1898, the French municipality decided to demolish the Chinese idol, which was necessary to lay a new street. Riots took place, this time suppressed by force of arms, and fifteen Chinese people were killed and many injured.
During the “boxing uprising” in 1900, order in Shanghai was not disturbed, since there were large garrisons of English, French, German and Japanese troops in the city at that time. These troops remained in Shanghai until 1902.
In December 1905, friction arose in Shanghai over the jurisdiction of an English judge in the local Mixed Court. There were fiery articles in Chinese newspapers and a series of proclamations calling for the protection of the allegedly violated rights of the Chinese. I had to again resort to a landing from warships.
The Chinese revolution of 1911 did not affect Shanghai at all, and only in the summer of 1913, when the war between North and South China began, the inhabitants of Settlement and the French Concession experienced the shells and bullets of Chinese troops fighting in the Chinese city.
In 1924-1925, Shanghai was again affected by the internecine war of Chinese political groups. The Volunteer Corps was mobilized, which at that time was already a solid military unit, and the landings from warships were landed.
Shanghai was covered in barricades. At that time in Shanghai, the Cadets of the Omsk and Khabarovsk Corps, evacuated here with the White Army from Vladivostok, also received rifles and became part of the Foreign Garrison. There was an apparent, temporary calm.
Intensified campaigning among students and workers against foreigners culminated on May 30, 1925, when a crowd of Chinese gathered near the Lauza police station, demanding the release of the arrested agitators, and threatened to burn the police station, located almost in the center of Settlement. Fire was opened, as a result of which four Chinese were killed. The Chinese were incredibly embittered and began to show nothing outright hostility to all Europeans. The next day, that is, May 31, a general strike was declared, numerous incidents of clash between the Chinese and the police were noted. On June 1, Shanghai was declared martial law and the Volunteer Corps was again mobilized.
On the Chinese side, demands were made for the destruction of all concession rights of foreigners and the restoration of China’s sovereign power over all foreign concessions.
Long diplomatic negotiations began, as a result of which three advisers were invited to the composition of the Municipal Council of the International Settlement from the Chinese population.
But already in 1926 thunderclouds began to gather again over Shanghai: in Canton, with the assistance of the Russian Bolsheviks, a new “National Government” was formed (headed by General Zhang Kai-shek), who decided to undertake a punitive expedition against the Northern Beijing government.
These “nationalists” crushed the resistance of the Beijing government forces and reached Hankow, into which the English government, at the request of the Chinese, renounced its concession rights.
The Chinese did not hide their intentions regarding Shanghai, in the direction of which another significant group of troops of the southerners moved.
However, here they decided to provide the most resolute resistance.
The “northern Chinese” parts of General Song Chuan-fang, who were in Shanghai, which, among other things, included Russian volunteers (white emigrants) who came to Shanghai with parts of the “white” Marshal Zhang Zuolin, the ruler of the “Three Eastern Provinces ”of Northern China (part of the detachment of General Nechaev) – no attention was paid, as to the defenders of Shanghai. On the contrary, they were even asked to stay away from Shanghai in order to prevent the possibility of a collision near or inside the city.
The military transports of the British, Americans, French, Japanese and Italians reached Shanghai. However, before the arrival of these troops, Shanghai itself, as it could, began to prepare for defense. Again, the Volunteer Corps was mobilized and reinforced with the creation of the Special Russian Detachment, later called the “Russian Regiment of the Shanghai Volunteer Corps”.